:

  •  
                                                          

    ( 50 ):

    -
    (?-860)
    (1875-1936)
    ( )




    (?-1796)



    (1891-1941)
    ( . 1932)
    ( . 1968)
    - ( . privatim - docens - )

    ( . privatus - )
    ( . privatus - ) (.)




    ()

    ( . privilegium











    ( . 1940)

    (Prigogine) ( . 1917)








    ( )
    (Priede) ( . 1928)

    () (1843-1914)
    (Vauban) (1633-1707)
    (Vian) (1920-59)
    ( a - . stigme - )

    :